Club Information

Welcome to the Rotary Club of Homer-Kachemak Bay - Celebrating Over 34 Years Serving Homer and the World

Homer-Kachemak Bay

Four Way Test: True, Fair, Goodwill & Beneficial to All

We meet Thursdays at 12:00 PM
Best Western Bidarka Inn
575 Sterling Hwy
PO Box 377
Homer, AK 99603
United States of America
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Home Page Stories
Holger Knaack has a fresh vision for the Rotary of the future. With a little help from his friends, things should go swimmingly
The Küchensee, one of Ratzeburg’s four lakes, provides a scenic backdrop for lunch with Holger’s sister, Barbara (left), and Susanne’s sister, Sabine (right).
 
Holger Knaack is vacuuming.
 
The Rotary Club of Herzogtum Lauenburg-Mölln in Germany has wrapped up its annual Christmas bazaar in the cloister of the 12th-century Ratzeburg Cathedral. Two days of selling handicrafts, mistletoe, and homemade cakes and cookies have netted the club some 8,000 euros, which this year will go to a German nonprofit that supports children who are critically ill. As the club members break down booths and put away tables and chairs, Knaack grabs the vacuum cleaner and, head down in concentration, tackles the crumbs, dirt, and bits of tinsel that litter the floor.
At this moment, Knaack is president-elect of Rotary International, preparing to take office on 1 July 2020. But at the same time he’s a regular Rotarian, a 27-year member of his club, pitching in like everybody else. “He just wants to be one friend among friends,” says club member Barbara Hardkop.
 
There’s a German phrase: man holt die Leute ins Boot. It means getting people on board to work together toward a common goal. In the coming year, Rotarians will find that Holger Knaack is not one to stand on the sidelines while others do the work. But equally important for Knaack is the philosophy that working hard doesn’t mean you can’t also have a good time. As he spends this year getting people on board — especially to carry out his highest priority, investing in young people — he will also be doing his best to make sure everyone is enjoying themselves.
 
“It’s a basic principle with Holger,” says his longtime friend Hubertus Eichblatt, a fellow club member. “When we get together, it has to be fun.”
Holger Knaack, Rotary International’s 2020-21 president. “He looks youthful,” says a friend. “He is youthful!”
 
Holger Knaack is an atypical Rotary president, and not just because he wears jeans and eschews ties much of the time. He’s the organization’s first German president, and he came to that position in untraditional fashion. Unlike many of his predecessors, he didn’t rise step by step through the ranks of Rotary offices. He served as club president and district governor, but he had held only one Rotary International post, that of training leader, before becoming director. And he remembers being at a Rotary institute where people asked him what other district offices he had held before becoming governor. “I said, ‘None. None.’ All of them were very surprised,” he recalls.
 
What Knaack is most known for is his involvement in Rotary’s Youth Exchange program. That experience is deep, broad, and extraordinarily meaningful to him and his wife, Susanne. They have no children of their own, but they have opened their home — and their hearts — to dozens of students. “The Knaack house is always full of guests, especially young people,” says Helmut Knoth, another friend and member of Holger’s club. “They’ve had hundreds of guests over the years.”
 
Shortly after joining his Rotary club in 1992, Knaack helped out with a camp for short-term Youth Exchange students in northern Germany. He was immediately hooked. “I thought it was a really great program,” he says. “This is something, you’d say in German, wo dein Herz aufgeht: Your heart opens. Whenever you talk to the young people, they’ll tell you, ‘It was the best time in my life.’ Sometimes I think they are surprised about themselves, about what they are able to do, and about the possibilities that are open to them through Rotary.”
 
The opportunities opened for Knaack, as well. He became Youth Exchange chair for his club, and after serving as governor of District 1940 in 2006-07, he was asked to chair the German Multi-District Youth Exchange, a position he held until the day before he started his term on Rotary’s Board of Directors in 2013. Along the way, he notes, he always relied on other people. “You develop a vision together, and then let’s go ahead,” he says. “Everybody’s going a little different way; there’s never just one road. But the goal should be the same.”
 
Young people seem to intuitively understand Knaack’s way of doing things. “Holger has a vision, and he is executing on that vision,” says Brittany Arthur, a member of the Rotaract Club of Berlin and the Rotary Club of Berlin International. “And you recognize that this vision is not new for him. Holger and Susanne have had dozens of Youth Exchange students. Do you think they did all that so that in 2020 he could say, ‘We need to invest in youth’? This is who they are.”
 
Arthur also sees Knaack as unusual in his willingness to invest in “potential, not experience.” In 2012, as an Australian Ambassadorial Scholar in Germany, she had a brief exchange with him at a club meeting. That led to her speaking about her “Rotary moment” at a Berlin peace forum sponsored by 2012-13 RI President Sakuji Tanaka. After her presentation, she thought she was done. But Knaack, who had organized the forum and was now putting together a Rotary institute, had other ideas. “I had just finished speaking to hundreds of Rotarians,” she recalls. “I was feeling so great, and he said, ‘Do you want to help with the institute?’ and I said, ‘Yes!’”
 
Like other Rotarians, Arthur perceives the depth of Knaack’s persuasive personality. “He’s super funny and nice, but he’s dead serious when it comes to certain things. Which is why he’s such an interesting leader: He can show up on so many different levels when you need him.”
 
“He’s super funny and nice, but he’s dead serious when it comes to certain things, which is why he’s such an interesting leader.”
 
Holger and Susanne Knaack love to travel, but they have lived their entire lives not far from where they were born: she in Ratzeburg and he in the nearby village of Groß Grönau, about 40 miles northeast of Hamburg. Their upbringings were remarkably similar. Each was born in 1952 and lived over the shop of the family business: Susanne’s father and grandfather were sausage makers, and Holger’s family bakery was founded by his great-great-great-grandfather in 1868. “We were very loved,” Holger remembers. “Everybody took care of you; everybody always knew where you were.”
 
Hubertus Eichblatt also grew up in Ratzeburg, where his sister and Susanne, whose maiden name was Horst, were childhood friends. “The Horst family had a very open house, and it’s exactly the same with Holger,” he says. “Friends are always coming in and out.”
Holger and Susanne live in the home that once belonged to Susanne’s grandmother; next door, Susanne’s sister, Sabine Riebensahm, lives in the house where the two grew up. About a decade ago, after her husband died, Holger’s sister, Barbara Staats, moved into an apartment on the top floor of that house. The two homes have a total of nine guest rooms, and what with Barbara’s 12 grandchildren, dozens of current and former Youth Exchange students, and various other friends, at least one of those rooms is usually occupied.
 
Every morning, everyone meets for coffee in a cozy nook off Holger and Susanne’s living room, where floor-to-ceiling windows offer views of the Küchensee, one of four lakes that surround Ratzeburg. They often lunch together as well, followed by more coffee. Then Holger has a ritual: He folds his long frame onto a little sofa for a nap while Susanne, Barbara, and Sabine continue their chat. “He likes to hear us talking while he’s napping,” Sabine says.
 
The four share duties, including shopping and cooking. “When someone needs something, you just shout,” Holger says. “I think this is the perfect way to live: together. The secret to anything is to ask: What’s our goal? This is exactly our goal, how we live right now.”
 
One Saturday in December, Holger, Susanne, Barbara, and Sabine are preparing boeuf bourguignon to serve at a dinner party for 23 close friends the Knaacks will be hosting the next day. They’re simultaneously planning the menu for Christmas, when they’ll have 15 people — 16 if a young Egyptian woman who is studying in Germany, the daughter of some Rotarians they met at a Rotary institute in Sharm el-Sheikh, takes them up on their invitation.
 
Helmut Knoth calls the Knaacks’ hospitality “a stroke of luck for Rotary. At least once a year we have a party there, in their beautiful garden,” he says. “When the weather is nice, we go swimming. In winter, there’s a traditional event for Holger’s birthday. We meet at the rowing club and hike around the lake.” All the birthday gifts are donations to the Karl Adam Foundation, which Knaack founded to support the rowing club. (Ratzeburg is world-famous for its rowing club, whose members formed the core of the German teams that won gold at the 1960, 1968, 2000, 2004, and 2012 Olympics. The club’s co-founder and longtime trainer, a local high school teacher named Karl Adam, is considered one of the best rowing coaches of all time and developed what’s known as the “Ratzeburg style.”)
Over hot punch at the Rotary Club of Herzogtum Lauenburg-Mölln’s Christmas party in December, Knaack chats with fellow club member Barbara Hardkop and her husband, Gerrit (with Jan Schmedes in the background).
 
Looking through family photo albums, the Knaacks talk about childhood vacations to the seaside — Holger and his family to the island of Sylt on the North Sea, and Susanne and her family to the Baltic Sea coast. A few kilometers from their home, Holger’s family also had a small summer house with a large garden where they would spend weekends. The forests and meadows were his to explore. “It was a perfect childhood,” he says.
Holger’s boyhood home was situated about 500 meters from a small river, the Wakenitz, that formed the border with East Germany. “For me, that was really the end of the world,” he remembers. In the summer, he and his friends would test their courage by swimming across the river. On the other side was a swamp, a minefield, and watchtowers manned by East German guards. After the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, he says, “the first thing we did was to explore the other side by bicycle. All the watchtowers were open. I had never seen our own village, or our own house, from that perspective.”
 
As a young man, on holidays and weekends, Holger worked as a driver for his family bakery. After finishing secondary school he learned the trade, working in another bakery for two years for his Ausbildung, or apprenticeship. “So I can bake a lot of things,” he says cheerfully. “And I still like to bake. You have to love what you do in order to be very good. Whatever marketing techniques you may use, it’s all about the quality. Quality is about loving the product and trying to make it the best you can. But you have to take your time. That’s the secret to many things.”
After completing his Ausbildung and another year of internship in a large bread factory in Stuttgart, he went to the city of Kiel to study business administration. At the first student assembly, he caught sight of his future wife. “I saw Susanne on the 20th of September 1972,” he says. “I remember that quite well.”
Holger and Susanne Knaack love to cook for themselves and their friends; here, they assemble a meal in Holger’s sister’s kitchen.
 
Holger didn’t make the same impression on Susanne, perhaps because there were 94 men and only three women in their class. But they soon got acquainted, and on weekends, they would drive home together to each work in their family’s business. Before returning to Kiel on Sunday evenings, they would load up the car with bread from the Knaack bakery and sausage from the Horst shop. “Our friends always knew to come over on Mondays,” Susanne says with a laugh.
 
They graduated in 1975 and got married the next year. Each of them continued to work in their own family’s business. At the time, the Knaack bakery had several shops and about 50 employees. After taking over from his father in the late 1970s, Knaack decided to expand the company. He also decided that he wanted to know exactly where the grain used to bake his bread was coming from. So he turned to his friend Hubertus Eichblatt, a farmer, who started a cooperative with other farmers. Knaack also worked with Günther Fielmann, Europe’s largest optician, who invested in cultivating organic grain on his own farm, Hof Lütjensee. Together Knaack and Fielmann built their own mill and marketed organic baked goods —something new 30 years ago. “Holger was always very innovative,” Eichblatt says, “very forward-thinking about those kinds of things.”
 
Another of Knaack’s innovations was to move the baking of the bread into the shops. Before that, bread was baked in the factory and the loaves were trucked to the shops. Knaack’s idea was to continue to make the dough in the factory, but then to freeze it in portions that were distributed to the shops to be baked. His motto was Der frische Bäcker – “the fresh baker.” Today, almost every bakery in Germany does it that way.
 
Knaack kept expanding the business; eventually there were about 50 shops and the factory with hundreds of employees. He received an offer to buy his company from an internationally active firm that was investing in bakeries. It was a very good offer, and Knaack took it. Still a young man in his 40s, he pursued other business ventures and took up golf (and was quickly tapped to be president of his golf club). He had been an active member of Round Table, an organization for people under age 40; at 39, he joined the Rotary club in the nearby town of Mölln (remaining a member there even when a new club was chartered shortly afterward in Ratzeburg with many of his friends as members). And before long, he found his calling with Rotary Youth Exchange.
Ratzeburg with its 12th-century cathedral and its glacial lakes.
 
Medieval Ratzeburg, with its ancient cathedral and half-timbered burghers’ houses, is situated on an island surrounded by four glacial lakes. The northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein is dotted with such lakes; winding roads lead through rolling green countryside past farms and villages built in the characteristic regional style of brick architecture. But the students who have stayed with Holger and Susanne have found something much deeper than a picture-postcard experience of Germany.
 
Here are the links to the two different business toolkits – the first from CDC, the second Alaska specific support.
 
Information from the CDC
 
Loads of Alaska materials
 
These toolkits are the ones Derotha told us about at last week's meeting.  As far as I can see, all of the information is appropriate for businesses, and some are even appropriate for some homes.
 
The Alaska specific toolkits are especially appropriate for Alaska, and do cover some Alaska specific items.  They both worth looking at.
 
Here is just one example of the Posters available for download.
 
Here’s a little info about the induction:
 
For his last meeting as president of the Rotary Club of Homer-Kachemak Bay, Don Keller organized a successful Zoom and in-person induction of officers for the 2020-2021 Rotary year. A few technical glitches didn’t spoil the fun June 25 on the deck of Alice’s Champagne Palace. Will Files, a former district governor and past president of the club, officiated. Vince Greear gave the invocation. Returning officers are Sue Clardy, vice president; Charlie Franz, secretary; Read Dunn, treasurer; Marv Peters, sergeant-at-arms; and directors Beth Trowbridge and Dennis Weidler. Lori Evans is now president of the club and Bill Hague is president-elect. Don Keller serves on the board as immediate past president. 
 
Not all of the Officers are pictured here, as some were not able to attend the "in-person" part of the ceremonies.
 
Pictures by McKibbon Jackinsky
 
Don Ringing the Bell
 
Vince Giving Invocation
 
Susie With Birthdays and Anniversaries
 
Director Dennis
 
 
Director Marv
 
Vice-President Sue
 
President Lori
 
President-Elect Bill
 
Secretary Charlie With Past District Governor Will
 
PDG Will and President Don
 
Past President Don With Plaque Thanking Him For His Service to Homer-Kachemak Bay Rotary
Office of Governor Mike Dunleavy
 
As the COVID-19 virus and the economic impacts unfold, the plan will adjust to take into consideration new, unforeseen negative impacts. It must be noted that this is a stabilization plan – not an enhancement, not an attempt to grow government, and not in place to create new programs. Rather, the plan is merely an attempt to mitigate the health and economic impacts as a result of this virus. The details of this six-point plan will be forthcoming over the weekend and there may be additional stabilization efforts added to the six points outlined in the attached handout. The Alaska Economic Stabilization Team lead by Former Governor Sean Parnell and Former U.S. Senator Mark Begich, who are in constant contact with the business community of Alaska, will also add suggestions that modify this plan. As this is an ever evolving and unprecedented event, so should be the response.
 
Governor Dunleavy's 6 Point Plan
 
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, Governor Dunleavy is focusing on six areas to provide stability to the economy and ensure Alaskans have the resources needed during this unprecedented time.
  1. Immediate Relief for Alaskans
    • COVID-19 Emergency Permanent Fund Dividend (PFD) – $815 million (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
      • Immediate appropriation and release of the unfunded 2019 PFD
    • Full Statutory 2020 PFD (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
      • Issued in two payments of ~$1,550 in June & October
    • Emergency unemployment benefits (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
    • Alaska Housing Finance Corporation mortgage relief
    • Student loan interest waiver – $2.3 million (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
    • Reduction/suspension of fees across selected state agencies
       
  2. Alaska Businesses
    • Establish the Alaska COVID-19 Emergency Business Loan Program
      • Provide 100% state-guaranteed loans to Alaskan businesses for immediate relief.
      • Loan program will be administered by local banks and structured to meet Alaska’s unique needs.
    • State Training Employment Program (STEP) – $2 million (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
       
  3. COVID-19 Emergency Healthcare Enhancements
    • Alaska COVID-19 Healthcare Fund – $75 million
      • Emergency response/isolation shelters
      • Additional medical personnel
      • Critical supplies, test kits, ventilators, & protective gear
    • Expand telehealth services
       
  4. Municipalities
    • Emergency Community Lost Revenue Replacement Program
      • Replace lost revenue due to negative economic impacts associated with COVID-19
         
  5. School Districts
    • Statewide virtual schools – $518,000 (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
    • School nutrition – $3 million (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
    • Distance delivery education – $500,000 (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
    • Student laptop & digital content – $1 million (Dependent Upon Legislative Action)
       
  6. State Workforce
    • Retrofit state offices to protect against the spread of COVID-19
    • Telecommuting options for state employees
Rotary Connects the World — that is Rotary President Mark Daniel Maloney’s theme, and despite the challenges presented by the COVID-19 pandemic, Rotarians are continuing to connect with one another and the world. Rotary’s new Action Plan calls on us to increase our ability to adapt — and members are coming up with innovative ways to serve their communities and create opportunities for fellowship. Many clubs are meeting online for the first time, reimagining fund-raisers and other events, and reinventing planned service projects.
 
Rotary’s online Learning Center has resources that can help you stay connected to the organization and to one another. Instead of a meeting one week, for instance, everyone in your club might choose a topic to learn more about and then report back to the other members. You might even decide to develop a webinar using Rotary tips and resources. “The Learning Center courses could be used for general knowledge and for brainstorming, action planning, and idea sharing,” says Kimberly Kouame, learning resources manager at Rotary International.
 
Often, the first time Rotarians use the Learning Center is when they are elected to a club office. But with more than 600 courses in over a dozen languages (including more than 80 in English), the Learning Center has something to interest every Rotarian. Here are a few to pique your interest; find them all at rotary.org/learn.
 
COURSES
 
Is Your Club Healthy?
When your club isn’t able to meet in person, it can be a challenge to keep members engaged. Now might be an ideal time to assess the state of your club and ask members what is working for them and what isn’t.
 
Your Membership Plan
Perhaps you’ve been thinking about creating a long-term membership plan. This course offers a helpful worksheet and step-by-step guidelines for crafting a strong future for your club.
 
Building a Diverse Club
In line with Rotary’s focus on diversity, equity, and inclusion, this course can help you expand your club’s membership to include people from different walks of life.
 
Committing to Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
This course offers a closer look at Rotary’s DEI statement and how you can put those values into action.
 
Practicing Flexibility and Innovation
This course guides you through some of the ways your club can be innovative, with advice on subjects such as setting up satellite clubs.
 
Kick-Start Your New Member Orientation
If your club has had trouble retaining new members, with people joining only to leave a few years later, this course can help. Get tips on how to make sure your new members feel welcome and engaged.
 
All About Rotary Peace Fellowships
Perhaps you know someone who might be a good candidate for a Rotary Peace Fellowship and you want to be able to talk knowledgeably about the program. Or maybe you would like your club to be more involved. This course will give you information on Rotary’s Peace Centers and the requirements and deadlines for applicants.
Building Rotary’s Public Image
Rotarians are people of action, and we want the world to know what we are accomplishing. But how can you get the message out? This course will teach you how to build awareness of Rotary and its work.
 
Planning Your Projects: Service Projects Committee
This course is designed for people serving on a club service projects committee, but anyone can benefit from the ideas about how to carry out effective projects — with tips on doing a community needs assessment and executing the project.
 
Rotary Foundation Basics
The Rotary Foundation is central to Rotary’s work in the world. This course will walk you through the century-long history of the Foundation and its role in grant-making, supporting polio eradication efforts, and funding the Rotary Peace Centers.
 
Becoming an Effective Facilitator
Develop your leadership skills for Rotary and beyond through this course, which guides you on how to effectively work with a team to define and achieve objectives.
 
Mentoring Basics
Mentoring has always been one of the cornerstones of Rotary. This course identifies the traits of a good mentor and suggests some best practices to make sure your mentoring relationship is beneficial to all concerned.
 
Essentials of Understanding Conflict
We’ve all had to deal with interpersonal conflict, whether the issues are small (who sits at which table at the meeting?) or large (what are our club’s priorities?). This course gives you tools to understand different types of conflict and describes conflict management styles.
 
Leading Change
Change is hard, especially in a collaborative organization. This course offers ideas on how to lead a group of people through organizational change, how to assess people’s readiness for change, and how to deal with resistance to change.
 
• Illustrations by Anders Wenngren
 
• This story originally appeared in the June 2020 issue of The Rotarian magazine.
Milli and Suzi did a lot of work on the Peter Larson Memorial Garden recently.  Here is part of Milli's email.
 
Got pictures of Peter Larson's garden, which looks so pretty, but will need weeding soon, those dandelions are persistent, will attach the pictures I took yesterday.
Flowers have been planted in the boxes at Ben Walters, encourage folks to drive through and see how nice it looks just now. Susie and I did the planting, the City met us at Wagon Wheel and paid for the flowers, which is nice of them. Our two spring projects are done!
 
 
How to Protect Those That Are Most Vulnerable
 
This guidance is intended for people living together in close quarters, such as people who share a small apartment, or for people who live in the same household with large or extended families.
Older adults (65 and older) and people of any age who have serious underlying medical conditions are at higher risk for severe illness from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The following information is aimed to help you protect those who are most vulnerable in your household.
Everyone should limit risks
If your household includes one or more vulnerable individuals then all family members should act as if they, themselves, are at higher riskMore information on steps and actions to take if at higher risk.
Limit errands
Family members should leave only when absolutely necessary. Essential errands include going to the grocery store, pharmacy, or medical appointments that cannot be delayed (e.g., infants or individuals with serious health conditions in need of aid).
If you must leave the house, please do the following:
  • Choose one or two family members who are not at a higher risk to run the essential errands.
  • Wear a cloth face covering, avoid crowds, practice social distancing, and follow these recommended tips for running errands.
  • Limit use of public transportation, such as the train or bus, during this period if possible.
    If you must use public transportation:
    • Maintain a 6-foot distance from other passengers as much as possible.
    • Avoid touching high-touch surfaces such as handrails, and wash hands or use hand sanitizers as soon as possible after leaving.
    • More information on how to protect yourself when using public transportation
  • Don’t ride in a car with members of different households. If that’s not possible:
    • Limit close contact and create space between others in the vehicle.
    • Improve air flow in the car by opening the window or placing air conditioning on non-recirculation mode.
  • Wash your hands immediately after you return home.
  • Maintain as much physical distance as possible with those at higher risk in the home. For example, avoid hugging, kissing, or sharing food or drinks.
Vulnerable members should avoid caring for children and those who are sick
Adults 65 years and older and people who have serious medical conditions should avoid caring for the children in their household, if possible. If people at higher risk must care for the children in their household, the children in their care should not have contact with individuals outside the household. Members of the household who are at high risk should also avoid taking care of sick people of any age who are sick.
Separate a household member who is sick
Provide a separate bedroom and bathroom for the person who is sick, if possible. If you cannot provide a separate room and bathroom, try to separate them from other household members as much as possible. Keep people at higher risk separated from anyone who is sick.
  • If possible, have only one person in the household take care of the person who is sick. This caregiver should be someone who is not at higher risk for severe illness and should minimize contact with other people in the household.
    • Identify a different caregiver for other members of the household who require help with cleaning, bathing, or other daily tasks.
  • If possible, maintain 6 feet between the person who is sick and other family or household members.
  • If you need to share a bedroom with someone who is sick, make sure the room has good air flow.
    • Open the window and turn on a fan to bring in and circulate fresh air if possible.
    • Maintain at least 6 feet between beds if possible.
    • Sleep head to toe.
    • Put a curtain around or place other physical divider (e.g., shower curtain, room screen divider, large cardboard poster board, quilt, or large bedspread) to separate the ill person’s bed.
  • If you need to share a bathroom with someone who is sick, the person who is sick should clean and disinfect the frequently touched surfaces in the bathroom after each use. If this is not possible, the person who does the cleaning should:
    • Open outside doors and windows before entering and use ventilating fans to increase air circulation in the area.
    • Wait as long as possible before entering the room to clean and disinfect or to use the bathroom.
  • If you are sick, do not help prepare food. Also, eat separately from the family.
        
Reopen Alaska Responsibly
Alaska’s Plan Forward
         
Alaska has done an excellent job of managing COVID-19. We responded quickly to an unknown threat to keep our cases low and to ensure our healthcare systems have the increased capacity to deal with COVID-19 cases in the future. The base actions that led to our success will continue to be our playbook for the future:
           • Stay six feet or more away from non-family members.
           • Wash your hands frequently.
           • Wipe down surfaces frequently.
• Wear a face covering when in a public setting in close contact with others.
• Stay home if you are sick and get tested for COVID-19 if you have symptoms.
• Be mindful and respectful to those Alaskans that are most vulnerable to this virus. Those being our seniors and those with existing health issues.
 
 Under Phases I and II, businesses and organizations found new and creative ways to minimize the risk of COVID-19, and each day we are seeing new national and industry guidelines being released that provide guidance on safely operating. 
 
It is with the listed guidelines and safety advisories that we can empower businesses, organizations and Alaskans to protect themselves and each other while continuing to open responsibly. 
Now is the time for the next phase of our response. To move ahead, we are combining our future phases, while encouraging personal and organizational responsibility to safely operate while mitigating the spread of this disease.
 
Make no mistake. The virus is with us. We must function with it and manage it. There will be folks who contract the virus and fall ill, but if we follow these guidelines, we can help lower potential risks and keep our way of life intact with a few exceptions.
 
The state, local communities, tribal partners, and healthcare providers have come together to do tremendous work. We built up our health care capacity to handle a potential increase in cases. We have increased screening and testing and continued to have robust contact tracing. We have trained our healthcare workers to safely work with, and treat, the virus. We have stockpiled and distributed PPE around the state. 
 
We will monitor the situation daily, as we have since this virus arrived in Alaska, and we will adjust, if necessary, to handle a growth in case clusters to prevent cases spiking.
 
Effective Friday May 22, 2020 Alaska is open for business:
 - All businesses can open - All houses of worship can open
- Libraries and museums can open
- All recreational activities can open
- All sports activities can open
 
 It’s the responsibility of individuals, businesses, and organizations to minimize the spread of COVID-19. We encourage all to follow local, state, national, and industry guidelines on ways to conduct business and activities safely. 
 
Exceptions/restrictions/closures:
- 14-day quarantine for interstate and international travel to Alaska remains in place. This will be reevaluated by June 2, 2020, but will be reviewed weekly.
- All senior centers, prisons, and institutions will continue to have restricted access.
 - Any proposed large public gatherings such as festivals and concerts need to consult first with public health before scheduling.
- The State will continue to work with large industries to protect their workforce and the communities in which they operate.
- Communities may still elect to keep in place travel restrictions. 
o - Some Alaskan communities may wish to extend restrictions on non-essential travel into their communities for health reasons. Check with your local   community.
- Health Mandates 15 (Elective Medical/Dental), 17 (Commercial Fishing), and 18 (Intrastate Travel) remain in effect.
 
It’s because of you, Alaska, that our statewide numbers remain low. We will keep our numbers low because of your actions.
Learn More about the Reopen Alaska Responsibly Plan.
Health Mandate 018: Intrastate Travel
Issued: May 11, 2020
 
By:      Governor Mike Dunleavy; Commissioner Adam Crum, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services; Dr. Anne Zink, Chief Medical Officer, State of Alaska
To prevent the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the State of Alaska is issuing its eighteenth health mandate based on its authority under the Public Health Disaster Emergency Declaration signed by Governor Mike Dunleavy on March 11, 2020.
 
Given the ongoing concern for new cases of COVID-19 being transmitted via community spread within the state, Governor Dunleavy and the State of Alaska are issuing Mandate 018, to go into effect May 12, 2020 at 8:00 a.m. and will remain in effect until amended, superseded, or rescinded.
 
This Mandate is being issued to protect the public health of Alaskans. By issuing this Mandate, the Governor continues to establish consistent mandates across the State in order to mitigate the impacts of COVID-19. The goal is to flatten the curve, disrupting the spread of the virus.
 
The purpose of this Mandate is to clarify and centralize all requirements related to intrastate travel, to increase the ability of individuals within Alaska to travel, while still working to provide sufficient mitigation factors to prevent, slow, and otherwise disrupt the spread of the virus that causes COVID-19.  
This Mandate supersedes Mandate 012 and Mandate 016-Attachment M.
 
Effective 8:00 a.m. on May 12, 2020, intrastate travel is permitted under the following conditions and guidance:
 
Definitions for purposes of this Mandate:
  1. “Road System” is defined as any community connected by a road to the Seward, Parks, Klondike, Richardson, Sterling, Glenn, or Top of the World Highways.
  2. “Marine Highway System” is defined as any community served by the Alaska Marine Highway System or the Inter-Island Ferry System.
  3. “Critical Personal Needs” is defined as those needs that are critical to meeting a person’s individual or family needs. Those needs include buying, selling, or delivering groceries and home goods; obtaining fuel for vehicles or residential needs; transporting family members for out-of-home care, essential health needs, or for purposes of child custody exchanges; receiving essential health care; providing essential health care to a family member; obtaining other important goods; and engaging in subsistence activities.
  4. “Essential Services/Critical Infrastructure” is defined as businesses included in “Alaska’s Essential Services and Critical Infrastructure” (formerly Attachment A)
Intrastate Travel Between Communities Located On The Road System And/Or The Marine Highway System is permitted for all purposes. Note: travelers may travel between the Road System and Marine Highway System communities via any normal means of transportation, including vehicle, boat, ferry, aircraft, and commercial air carrier.
 
All Travel To Or From A Community Off The Road System Or The Marine Highway System Is Prohibited, Except As Necessary For:
  1. Critical Personal Needs
  2. The conduct of Essential Services/Critical Infrastructure
General Requirements
  1. No one traveling to or from any community for Critical Infrastructure/Essential Services reasons or Critical Personal Needs travel may be subject to any automatic quarantine or isolation on arrival, except as allowed under Alaska Statutes or Health Mandates.
  2. Air carriers, ferries, and other travel-related businesses have no duty to verify that intrastate travelers meet the criteria for permissible travel under this Mandate. Air carriers shall inquire if travelers are permitted to travel under this Mandate and shall rely upon a traveler’s assurance that they are eligible to travel.
  3. Groups traveling are subject to Mandate 016, Attachment N, Social Distancing.
  4. All businesses, whether Essential Services/Critical Infrastructure or non-essential/non-critical, that have staff traveling between communities, must file a protective plan with akcovidplans@ak-prepared.com. The plan should outline how the business will avoid the spread of COVID-19 and not endanger lives in the communities in which the business wants to operate, endanger others who serve as a part of the business community, or endanger the ability of critical infrastructure to function. If you have already submitted a plan pursuant to a prior Health Mandate, you do not need to submit another plan. Visit https://covid19.alaska.gov/unified-command/protective-plans/ for guidance.
  5. Alaskans should refer to other Health Mandates and guidance as necessary and appropriate.
Precautions while traveling:
  1. Stops shall be minimized on the way to the final destination.
  2. If travelers must stop for food, gas, or supplies, only one traveler shall engage with the third-party vendor. All travelers must practice social distancing by keeping six feet away from others when possible, and avoid crowded places whenever possible. Cloth face coverings should be used whenever a traveler engages with a third-party vendor(s).
  3. Travelers, traveling by car or vehicle, who have to stop shall wash their hands or use hand sanitizer before exiting, and immediately after returning to, the car or vehicle.
***This Health Mandate Supersedes Mandate 012, Attachment B, and Mandate 016-Attachment M.

Health Mandate 017: Protective Measures for Independent Commercial Fishing Vessels

Issued: April 23, 2020

By: Governor Mike Dunleavy
Commissioner Adam Crum, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
Dr. Anne Zink, Chief Medical Officer, State of Alaska

To slow the spread of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the State of Alaska is issuing its seventeenth health mandate, based on its authority under the Public Health Disaster Emergency Declaration signed by Governor Mike Dunleavy on March 11, 2020.

Given the ongoing concern for new cases of COVID-19 being transmitted via community spread within the state, Governor Dunleavy and the State of Alaska are issuing Mandate 017 to go into effect April 24, 2020 at 8:00 a.m. and will reevaluate the Mandate by May 20, 2020.

This Mandate is issued to protect the public health of Alaskans. By issuing this Mandate, the Governor is establishing consistent mandates across the State in order to mitigate the impact of COVID-19. The goal is to flatten the curve and disrupt the spread of the virus.

The purpose of this Mandate is to enact protective measures for independent commercial fishing vessels operating within Alaskan waters and ports in order to prevent, slow, and otherwise disrupt the spread of the virus that causes COVID-19.

The State of Alaska acknowledges the importance of our commercial fishing fleet to our economy and lifestyle as Alaskans. In order to ensure a safe, productive fishing season this year, while still protecting Alaskan communities to the maximum extent possible from the spread of the virus, the State is establishing standardized protective measures to be followed by all independent commercial fishing vessels operating in Alaskan waters and ports.

Health Mandate 017 – Protective Measures for Independent Commercial Fishing Vessels.

  • Applicability
    1. Definition: For the purposes of this Mandate, “independent commercial fishing vessels” are defined as all catcher and tender vessels that have not agreed to operate under a fleet-wide plan submitted by a company, association, or entity that represents a fleet of vessels. This Mandate alleviates the requirement for independent commercial fishing vessels to submit a Community/Workforce Protective Plan in response to Health Mandates 010 or 012.
    2. This Mandate does not apply to skiffs operating from shore; protective measures for those vessels will be provided under separate guidance.
  • Required Protective Measures/Plans
    1. Independent commercial fishing vessels operating in Alaskan waters and ports must enact the protective measures and procedures described in Appendix 01, the Alaska Protective Plan for Commercial Fishing Vessels.
    2. Vessel captains must enact controls on their vessel to ensure crewmember compliance with this Mandate.
  • Travel and Access
    1. Compliance with this Mandate does not constitute a right to travel or access into any areas.
    2. It is incumbent upon the individual traveler to ensure that any proposed travel itinerary is still possible, and to adhere to any additional restrictions enacted by air carriers and lodging facilities or by small communities in accordance with the State of Alaska Small Community Emergency Travel Order (Health Mandate 012-Attachment B).
  • Compliance and Penalties
    1. Vessel captains are required to maintain documentation as directed by Appendix 01, Paragraph I, and must provide a copy of the Mandate 017 Acknowledgement Form (Appendix 02) upon request by any seafood purchasing agent or Federal, State, or local authority, to include law enforcement and fisheries regulators.
    2. A violation of a State COVID-19 Mandate may subject a business or organization to an order to cease operations and/or a civil fine of up to $1,000 per violation.
    3. In addition to the potential civil fines noted above, a person or organization that fails to follow the State COVID-19 Mandates designed to protect the public health from this dangerous virus and its impacts may, under certain circumstances, also be criminally prosecuted for Reckless Endangerment pursuant to Alaska Statute 11.41.250. Reckless endangerment is defined as follows:

(a) A person commits the crime of reckless endangerment if the person recklessly engages in conduct, which creates a substantial risk of serious physical injury to another person.

(b) Reckless endangerment is a class A misdemeanor.

Pursuant to Alaska Statute 12.55.135, a defendant convicted of a class A misdemeanor may be sentenced to a definite term of imprisonment of not more than one year.

Additionally, under Alaska Statute 12.55.035, a person may be fined up to $25,000 for a class A misdemeanor, and a business organization may be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding the greatest of $2,500,000 for a misdemeanor offense that results in death, or $500,000 for a class A misdemeanor offense that does not result in death.

This Mandate Supersedes And Replaces All Previously Submitted Protective Plans For Independent Commercial Fishing Vessels.

This Mandate Does Not Supersede Or Replace Any Previously Enacted Protective Plans For Corporate Vessel Fleets.

Appendix 01, the Alaska Protective Plan for Commercial Fishing Vessels

Appendix 02, Mandate 017 Acknowledgement Form 

For the latest information on COVID-19, visit covid19.alaska.gov

Rotarians in Lithuania and the United States promote the use of bubble helmets to help patients avoid mechanical ventilators
 
by Arnold R. Grahl
 
Rotarians in Lithuania and Chicago, Illinois, USA, are using their influence to promote the use of “bubble helmets” and potentially lessen the need for mechanical ventilators for COVID-19 patients who struggle to breathe on their own.
 
The Rotary Club of Vilnius Lituanica International, Lithuania, participated in Hack the Crisis, an online event in March that brought together innovators in science and technology to “hack,” or develop solutions to, issues caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Members of the Lithuanian club, along with members of the Rotary Clubs of Chicago and Chicagoland Lithuanians (Westmont), joined a team to brainstorm ways to help COVID-19 patients breathe without using mechanical ventilators.
Bubble helmets come in various designs and are noninvasive, supplying oxygen without the need for intubation.
 
“Traditional ventilators used with intubation are a painful intervention into the body and require trained medical staff,” says Viktorija Trimbel, a member of the Vilnius Lituanica club, who was a mentor during Hack the Crisis. “There’s also a shortage of the drugs used for sedation. But you don’t have to be sedated with helmets.”
 
Bubble helmets are noninvasive and supply oxygen without the need for intubation, a procedure where a tube is inserted down a patient’s throat. A helmet fits over a patient’s head with a rubber collar that can be adjusted around the neck. The collar has ports that can deliver oxygen and air.
 
Before the pandemic, doctors typically used noninvasive devices to help patients breathe if their oxygen levels dropped below a certain level. If the noninvasive devices don’t boost those levels enough, mechanical ventilators are used to push oxygen into the lungs through the tube at a preset rate and force.
 
Benefits of bubble helmets
  • Helps with respiratory distress                     
  • Noninvasive                                                 
  • Can be used outside of intensive care units 
But some critical care physicians are becoming concerned that intubation and mechanical ventilators are being used unnecessarily on COVID-19 patients and suggest that more patients could benefit by remaining longer on simpler, noninvasive respiratory support.
 
Helmetbasedventilation.com connects researchers, manufacturers, medical professionals, and funding sources to increase the supply of bubble helmets.
 
“Being a Rotarian, I have in my network people from all over the world,” adds Trimbel, governor-elect of the district that covers Lithuania. “This pandemic has moved like a wave, first in Asia, then Europe, and then the United States. Yet countries like Mexico, Brazil, and India aren’t yet as impacted. We’re trying to get word out in time for the information to help.”
 
Beginnings of an idea
 
The idea to promote helmets actually began around a kitchen table in Chicago three days before the hackathon when Aurika Savickaite, a registered nurse and member of the Chicagoland Lithuanians (Westmont) club, discussed the crisis with her husband, David Lukauskas, who is Trimbel’s brother. Savickaite recalled a clinical trial she participated in that involved the helmets a few years earlier.
 
The three-year study found that using these kinds of helmets helped more patients with respiratory distress avoid intubation than masks, another noninvasive method. The patients’ overall outcomes were also much improved. The helmets can be used in any room equipped with a wall oxygen supply, not just an intensive care unit.
 
“You want to avoid intubation for as long as you can, because generally the mortality rate on intubation is fairly high,” said Savickaite.
 
“Through Rotary, we’re able to connect so many people around the world. It’s a great way to collaborate in this battle.”
 
Lukauskas was surprised that more people weren’t talking about helmets and called Trimbel, who had already signed up as a mentor for Hack the Crisis. Together they enlisted more than a dozen Rotary members from their clubs to explore noninvasive ventilation options and how to expand the use of helmets.
 
The group worked with intensive care unit clinicians, healthcare leaders, helmet manufacturers, technology professionals, and marketing managers. They developed a short questionnaire for clinicians and hospital leaders worldwide, gathered practice-based knowledge on noninvasive ventilation for COVID-19 patients, devised an online platform to connect suppliers with demand, and pursued funding to finance the production of more helmets.
 
Spreading the word
 
Trimbel, her brother, and Savickaite launched their website to encourage collaboration and link manufacturers, clinicians, and funding sources. Trimbel says they’ve also spoken with media outlets in the United States.
 
The website posts news such as the mid-April announcement by Virgin Galactic that it was teaming up with the U.S. space agency NASA and a U.S. hospital to develop their own version of bubble helmets to supplement scarce supplies of ventilators in hospitals in southern California and beyond.
 
“Because of trade restrictions and borders being closed, most countries are on their own,” says Trimbel. “There’s a Facebook group where people are designing their own helmets using balloons and plastics. Some may think it’s funny, but it’s also inspiring. The helmet part is not rocket science, as long as it works with the connectors. We believe this has very big potential.”
The problem-solving team also worked on how to improve the isolation of patients who think they may have the virus, and how to match the supply and demand for medical equipment with available funding. Another team at the hackathon developed a digital platform that helps family physicians find up-to-date medical information on the virus for their patients.
Savickaite feels Rotary is in a strong position to find solutions to problems caused by the pandemic.
 
“Through Rotary, we’re able to connect so many people around the world,” she said. “It’s a great way to collaborate in this battle.”
 
From the ROTARIAN
To the Editor:
Video
 
Digital Object Thumbnail
 
Aerosols and droplets generated during speech have been implicated in the person-to-person transmission of viruses,1,2 and there is current interest in understanding the mechanisms responsible for the spread of Covid-19 by these means. The act of speaking generates oral fluid droplets that vary widely in size,1 and these droplets can harbor infectious virus particles. Whereas large droplets fall quickly to the ground, small droplets can dehydrate and linger as “droplet nuclei” in the air, where they behave like an aerosol and thereby expand the spatial extent of emitted infectious particles.2 We report the results of a laser light-scattering experiment in which speech-generated droplets and their trajectories were visualized.
 
The output from a 532-nm green laser operating at 2.5-W optical power was transformed into a light sheet that was approximately 1 mm thick and 150 mm tall. We directed this light sheet through slits on the sides of a cardboard box measuring 53×46×62 cm. The interior of the box was painted black. The enclosure was positioned under a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to eliminate dust.
 
When a person spoke through the open end of the box, droplets generated during speech traversed approximately 50 to 75 mm before they encountered the light sheet. An iPhone 11 Pro video camera aimed at the light sheet through a hole (7 cm in diameter) on the opposite side of the box recorded sound and video of the light-scattering events at a rate of 60 frames per second. The size of the droplets was estimated from ultrahigh-resolution recordings. Video clips of the events while the person was speaking, with and without a face mask, are available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org
.
 
Figure 1. Emission of Droplets While a Person Said “Stay Healthy.”
 
We found that when the person said “stay healthy,” numerous droplets ranging from 20 to 500 μm were generated. These droplets produced flashes as they passed through the light sheet (Figure 1). The brightness of the flashes reflected the size of the particles and the fraction of time they were present in a single 16.7-msec frame of the video. The number of flashes in a single frame of the video was highest when the “th” sound in the word “healthy” was pronounced (Figure 1A). Repetition of the same phrase three times, with short pauses in between the phrases, produced a similar pattern of generated particles, with peak numbers of flashes as high as 347 with the loudest speech and as low as 227 when the loudness was slightly decreased over the three trials (see the top trace in Figure 1A). When the same phrase was uttered three times through a slightly damp washcloth over the speaker’s mouth, the flash count remained close to the background level (mean, 0.1 flashes); this showed a decrease in the number of forward-moving droplets (see the bottom trace in Figure 1A).
 
We found that the number of flashes increased with the loudness of speech; this finding was consistent with previous observations by other investigators.3 In one study, droplets emitted during speech were smaller than those emitted during coughing or sneezing. Some studies have shown that the number of droplets produced by speaking is similar to the number produced by coughing.4
 
We did not assess the relative roles of droplets generated during speech, droplet nuclei,2 and aerosols in the transmission of viruses. Our aim was to provide visual evidence of speech-generated droplets and to qualitatively describe the effect of a damp cloth cover over the mouth to curb the emission of droplets.
 
Philip Anfinrud, Ph.D.
Valentyn Stadnytskyi, Ph.D.
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
 
Christina E. Bax, B.A.
Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA
 
Adriaan Bax, Ph.D.
National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
 
Disclosure forms. opens in new tab provided by the authors are available with the full text of this letter at NEJM.org.
 
This letter was published on April 15, 2020, at NEJM.org.
Health mandates are orders issued by Governor Mike Dunleavy, Alaska Health and Social Services Commissioner Adam Crum, and Alaska Chief Medical Officer Dr. Anne Zink.
Health mandates must be followed
.
Health Mandate 016: Reopen Alaska Responsibly Plan - Phase 1-A
Issued: April 22, 2020
By:       Governor Mike Dunleavy
 
            Commissioner Adam Crum, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services
 
            Dr. Anne Zink, Chief Medical Officer, State of Alaska
 
The State of Alaska is issuing its sixteenth health mandate, based on its authority under the Public Health Disaster Emergency Declaration signed by Governor Mike Dunleavy on March 11, 2020. This Mandate will go into effect April 24, 2020. The State of Alaska reserves the right to amend the Mandate at any time.
 
To date, the State of Alaska has issued 15 mandates to protect the public health of all Alaskans. These mandates, which have been aimed at flattening the curve, have been beneficial in slowing the spread of the disease.
 
This Mandate seeks to balance the ongoing need to maintain diligent efforts to slow and disrupt the rate of infection with the corresponding critical need to resume economic activity in a reasonable and safe manner.
 
This Mandate is the first of a series that are intended to reopen Alaska responsibly. By issuing this Mandate, the Governor is establishing consistent mandates across the State in order to mitigate both the public health and the economic impacts of COVID-19 across Alaska.
 
This Mandate addresses and modifies a number of prior Mandates and Health Care Advisories, as appropriate, to implement Phase I of the “Reopen Alaska Responsibly Plan.” If there is any discrepancy between this Mandate, including its attachments, and any other statements, mandates, advisories, or documents regarding the “Reopen Alaska Responsibly Plan”, this Mandate and its attachments will govern. FAQs may be issued to bring additional clarity to this Mandate based on questions that may arise.
 
 Health Mandate 016 – REOPEN ALASKA RESPONSIBLY PLAN- PHASE I-A
 
Health Mandate 016 goes into effect at 8:00 a.m. on Friday, April 24, 2020.
 
Reopening Alaska’s businesses is vital to the state’s economic well-being, and to the ability of Alaskans to provide for their families. At the same time, everyone shares in the obligation to keep Alaska safe and continue to combat the spread of COVID-19. As a result, businesses and employees must, to the extent reasonably feasible, continue to take reasonable care to protect their staff and operations during this pandemic. Meanwhile, all Alaskans have an obligation to help promote public health and fight this pandemic by continuing to follow public health guidance regarding sanitizing, handwashing, and use of face masks. Those that are at high risk of infection are encouraged to continue to self-quarantine, to the extent possible, and strictly follow social distancing mandates and advisories.
 
Unless explicitly modified by this Mandate as set forth below and in Attachments D through H, prior Mandates remain in effect unless and until they are amended, rescinded, or suspended by further order of the Governor. The Governor and the State of Alaska reserve the right to amend this Mandate at any time in order to protect the public health, welfare, and safety of the public and assure the state’s safe resumption of economic activity.
 
The activities and businesses listed below that were previously governed by the referenced Mandates may resume under the conditions and guidance provided in the following attachments.
 
Attachment D – Non-Essential Public Facing Businesses Generally – modifies Mandate 011
Attachment E – Retail Businesses – modifies Mandate 011
Attachment F – Restaurants Dine-In Services – modifies Mandate 03.1
Attachment G – Personal Care Services – modifies Mandate 09
Attachment H – Non-Essential Non-Public-Facing Businesses – modifies Mandate 011 
 
PREEMPTION OF LOCAL MANDATES
 
The policies contained in this Health Mandate are most effective when implemented uniformly across the State. Conflicting local provisions will frustrate this Mandate’s health and economic objectives and, therefore, are irreconcilable with this Mandate’s purposes. Therefore, unless specifically authorized by this, or any another Mandate issued by the Governor, this Mandate, Attachment A (Alaska Essential Services and Critical Workforce Infrastructure Order), Attachment B (Alaska Small Community Emergency Travel Order), and Attachments D through G expressly and intentionally supersede and preempt any existing or future conflicting local, municipal, or tribal mandate, directive, resolution, ordinance, regulation, or other order.
 
Business operations and other activities permitted to operate under this mandate may not be prohibited by local, municipal, or tribal mandate, directive, resolution, ordinance, regulation, or other order.
 
Notwithstanding the above, businesses subject to this mandate that are located within the Municipality of Anchorage, must continue to operate under prior state and municipal mandates through 8 a.m. Monday April 27, 2020, at which time, this Mandate will control
ENFORCEMENT
 
A violation of a State of Alaska COVID-19 Mandate may subject a business or organization to an order to cease operations and/or a civil fine of up to $1,000 per violation. In addition to the potential civil fines noted, a person or organization that fails to follow State COVID-19 Mandates designed to protect the public health from this dangerous virus and its impact may, under certain circumstances, also be criminally prosecuted for Reckless Endangerment pursuant to Alaska Statute 11.41.250. Reckless endangerment is defined as follows:
(a)          A person commits the crime of reckless endangerment if the person recklessly engages I       n conduct which creates a substantial risk of serious physical injury to another        person.
            (b)         Reckless endangerment is a class A misdemeanor.
Pursuant to Alaska Statute 12.55.135, a defendant convicted of a class A misdemeanor may be sentenced to a definite term of imprisonment of not more than one year.
Additionally, under Alaska Statute 12.55.035, a person may be fined up to $25,000 for a class A misdemeanor, and a business organization may be sentenced to pay a fine not exceeding the greatest of $2,500,000 for a misdemeanor offense that results in death, or $500,000 for a class A misdemeanor offense that does not result in death.
 
***This Mandate is in effect until rescinded or modified.***
 
I. Applicability: This section generally applies to businesses interacting with the public which are not included in Attachment A: Alaska Essential Services and Critical Infrastructure Order. Retail businesses are addressed in Attachment E.
 
II. Non-Essential Businesses can resume operations if they meet all of the following requirements:
                
a.            Social Distancing:
 i.            Reservations only. Walk-ins prohibited. 
ii.            Fabric face coverings must be worn by all employees.
iii.           No more than 20 customers, or 25% maximum building occupancy as required by law (whichever is smaller) is permitted at any one time.
iv.           Outdoor businesses are not limited by number of customers, but must maintain social distancing between individuals and household groups.  
v.            Groups or parties must be limited to household members only.
vi.           Social distance of at least six feet is maintained between individuals.
vii.          Establish a COVID-19 Mitigation Plan addressing the practices and protocols to protect staff and the public.
viii.        Entryway signage must notify the public of the business’s COVID-19 Mitigation Plan and clearly state that any person with symptoms consistent with COVID-19 may not enter the premises.
b. Hygiene Protocols:
 i.            Employer must provide hand-washing or sanitizer at customer entrance and in communal spaces.
ii.            Frequent hand washing by employees, and an adequate supply of soap, disinfectant, hand sanitizer, and paper towels available. 
iii.           Employer must provide for hourly touch-point sanitization (e.g. workstations, equipment, screens, doorknobs, restrooms) throughout work site.
c. Staffing:
i.            Employer must provide training for employees regarding these requirements and provide each employee a copy of the business mitigation plan.
 ii.           Employer must conduct pre-shift screening and maintain staff screening log.
iii.           No employee displaying symptoms of COVID-19 will provide services to customers – symptomatic or ill employees may not report to work
iv.           No employee may report to the work site within 72 hours of exhibiting a fever.
v.           Employer must establish a plan for employees getting ill and a return to work plan following CDC guidance, which can be found here.
               d. Cleaning and Disinfecting:
i.            Cleaning and disinfecting must be conducted in compliance with CDC protocols weekly or, in lieu of performing the CDC cleaning and disinfecting, the business may shut down for a period of at least 72 consecutive hours per week to allow for natural deactivation of the virus, followed by site personnel performing a comprehensive disinfection of all common surfaces.
 ii.          When an active employee is identified as being COVID-19 positive by testing, CDC cleaning and disinfecting must be performed as soon after the confirmation of a positive test as practical. In lieu of performing CDC cleaning and disinfecting, businesses may shut down for a period of at least 72 consecutive hours to allow for natural deactivation of the virus, followed by site personnel performing a comprehensive disinfection of all common surfaces.
iii.          CDC protocols can be found here and here. 
 III. Non-Essential Businesses Requiring In-Home Services
a.            Applicability: Businesses not falling under Attachment A: Alaska Essential Services and Critical Infrastructure Workforce which require provision of services in a   person’s home. Examples include, but are not limited to, installation of products such as windows, blinds, and furniture, non-critical inspections and appraisals, and showing a home for sale.
b.            These businesses can resume operations if they meet all of the following requirements:
i.             Social Distancing:
1.            Fabric face coverings worn by all workers and residents of the home.
2.            Social distance of at least six feet is maintained between non-household individuals.
3.            Establish a COVID-19 Mitigation Plan addressing the practices and protocols to protect staff and the public.
ii.            Hygiene Protocols:
            1. The worker must wash and/or sanitize hands immediately after entering the home and at time of departure.
            2. The worker must sanitize surfaces worked on, and must provide their own cleaning and sanitation supplies.
iii.           Staffing:
                         1.            Provide training for employees regarding these requirements and the business mitigation plan.
 2.           Conduct pre-shift screening and maintain staff screening log.
 3.            No employee displaying symptoms of COVID-19 will provide services to customers – symptomatic or ill employees may not report to work.
 4.            No person may work within 72 hours of exhibiting a fever.
Non-Essential Public Facing Businesses Generally (Not Including Retail)
Attachment D
Issued April 22, 2020 Effective April 24, 2020
 
By:  Governor Mike Dunleavy 
 
Commissioner Adam Crum Alaska Department of Health and Social Services 
 
Dr. Anne Zink, Chief Medical Officer, State of Alaska
 
I. Applicability: This section generally applies to businesses interacting with the public which are not included in Attachment A: Alaska Essential Services and Critical Infrastructure Order. Retail businesses are addressed in Attachment E.
 
II. Non-Essential Businesses can resume operations if they meet all of the following requirements:
 
a. Social Distancing:
                          i. Reservations only. Walk-ins prohibited.
                         ii. Fabric face coverings must be worn by all employees.
                        iii. No more than 20 customers, or 25% maximum building occupancy as required by law (whichever is smaller) is permitted at any one time.
                        iv. Outdoor businesses are not limited by number of customers, but must maintain social distancing between individuals and household groups.  
                         v. Groups or parties must be limited to household members only.
                        vi. Social distance of at least six feet is maintained between individuals.
vii. Establish a COVID-19 Mitigation Plan addressing the practices and protocols to protect staff and the public.
viii. Entryway signage must notify the public of the business’s COVID-19 Mitigation Plan and clearly state that any person with symptoms consistent with COVID-19 may not enter the premises.
b. Hygiene Protocols:
i. Employer must provide hand-washing or sanitizer at customer entrance and in communal spaces.
ii. Frequent hand washing by employees, and an adequate supply of soap, disinfectant, hand sanitizer, and paper towels available.
iii. Employer must provide for hourly touch-point sanitization (e.g. workstations, equipment, screens, doorknobs, restrooms) throughout work site.
c. Staffing:
i. Employer must provide training for employees regarding these requirements and provide each    employee a copy of the business mitigation plan. 
                        ii. Employer must conduct pre-shift screening and maintain staff screening log.
iii. No employee displaying symptoms of COVID-19 will provide services to customers – symptomatic or ill employees may not report to work
iv. No employee may report to the work site within 72 hours of exhibiting a fever. v. Employer must establish a plan for employees getting ill and a return to work plan following CDC guidance, which can be found here.
 
d. Cleaning and Disinfecting:
 i.      Cleaning and disinfecting must be conducted in compliance with CDC protocols weekly or, in lieu of performing the CDC cleaning and disinfecting, the business may              shut down for a period of at least 72 consecutive hours per week to allow for natural deactivation of the virus, followed by site personnel performing a comprehensive              disinfection of all common surfaces.
ii.      When an active employee is identified as being COVID-19 positive by testing, CDC cleaning and disinfecting must be performed as soon after the confirmation of a                positive test as practical. In lieu of performing CDC cleaning and disinfecting, businesses may shut down for a period of at least 72 consecutive hours to allow for natural          deactivation of the virus, followed by site personnel performing a comprehensive disinfection of all common surfaces.
           iii.     CDC protocols can be found here and here.
 
 III. Non-Essential Businesses Requiring In-Home Services
 
a. Applicability: Businesses not falling under Attachment A: Alaska Essential Services and Critical Infrastructure Workforce which require provision of services in a person’s home. Examples include, but are not limited to, installation of products such as windows, blinds, and furniture, non-critical inspections and appraisals, and showing a home for sale.
b. These businesses can resume operations if they meet all of the following requirements:
 
                       i.     Social Distancing:
                         1. Fabric face coverings worn by all workers and residents of the home.
                         2. Social distance of at least six feet is maintained between nonhousehold individuals.
             3. Establish a COVID-19 Mitigation Plan addressing the practices and protocols to protect staff and the public.
 
          ii. Hygiene Protocols:
              1. The worker must wash and/or sanitize hands immediately after entering the home and at time of departure.
              2. The worker must sanitize surfaces worked on, and must provide their own cleaning and sanitation supplies.
                      iii. Staffing:
              1. Provide training for employees regarding these requirements and the business mitigation plan.
                                      2. Conduct pre-shift screening and maintain staff screening log.
              3. No employee displaying symptoms of COVID-19 will provide services to customers – symptomatic or ill employees may not report to work.
                                      4. No person may work within 72 hours of exhibiting a fever.
 
Restaurants Dine-In Services
Attachment F
Issued April 22, 2020 Effective April 24, 2020
State of Alaska COVID-19 Mandate 016 - Attachment F Restaurants Dine-In Services
By:  Governor Mike Dunleavy 
Commissioner Adam Crum, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services 
Dr. Anne Zink, Chief Medical Officer, State of Alaska
I. Applicability: This section applies to restaurants only. Bars remain closed.
II. Restaurants may resume table service dining if they meet all of the following requirements:
a. General:
            i.             Social distancing protocol is maintained.
            ii.            Continue to follow all regulatory and legal standards required to operate a food services business in Alaska.
            iii.           Develop protocols in the restaurant’s COVID-19 Mitigation Plan to minimize direct contact between employees and customers, and increase physical distancing.
b. Capacity:
 i.             Indoors
            1. Groups limited to household members only.
2. Limit maximum indoor capacity by 25 percent based on factors such as   square footage, configuration, or fire code capacity. Business must determine, post, and            enforce. 
3. Tables seating non-household members must be a minimum of ten feet apart 
ii. Outdoors
                  1. Groups limited to household members only.
                  2. No more than 20 tables.
      3. Tables seating non-household members must be a minimum of ten feet apart.
 
c. Operations:
i.      Reservations only. Walk-in prohibited.
ii.     Groups limited to household members only.
iii.    Fabric face coverings worn by all employees.
iv.     Entryway signage stating that any customer who has symptoms of COVID-19 must not enter the premises.
 v.     Establish a COVID-19 Mitigation Plan addressing the practices and protocols to
         protect staff and the public.
vi. Hard copy of written safety, sanitization, and physical distancing protocols (specific to COVID-19) on the business premises.
vii. Disposableware should be used when available.
viii. Condiments by request in single-use disposable packets or reusable condiments by request that are sanitized between parties.
ix. Fully sanitize tables and chairs after each party.
x. Sanitize or provide disposable menus or menu board. xi. Provide sanitizer on each table or at customer entrance
xii. Hourly touch-point sanitization (workstations, equipment, screens, doorknobs, restrooms).
a. Hygiene:
i. Employer must provide hand-washing or sanitizer at customer entrance and in communal spaces.
ii. Frequent hand washing by employees, and an adequate supply of soap, disinfectant, hand sanitizer, and paper towels available. 
iii. Employer must provide for hourly touch-point sanitization (e.g. workstations, equipment, screens, doorknobs, restrooms) throughout work site.
d. Staffing:
i.         Provide training for employees regarding these requirements and the COVID-19
           Mitigation Plan; 
            ii.        Conduct pre-shift screening, maintain staff screening log;
iii.       No employee displaying symptoms of COVID-19 will provide services to customers – symptomatic or ill employees may not report to work;
            iv.        No person may work within 72 hours of exhibiting a fever;
v.         Employer must establish a plan for employees getting ill and a return-to- work plan following CDC guidance, which can be found here.
 
e. Cleaning and Disinfecting:  
i.        Cleaning and disinfecting must be conducted in compliance with CDC protocols weekly or, in lieu of performing the CDC cleaning and disinfecting, the retail business             may shut down for a period of at least 72 consecutive hours per week to allow for natural deactivation of the virus, followed by site personnel performing a                               comprehensive disinfection of all common surfaces.
ii.       When an active employee is identified as being COVID-19 positive by testing, CDC cleaning and disinfecting must be performed as soon after the confirmation of a                 positive test as practical. In lieu of performing CDC cleaning and disinfecting, retail businesses may shut down for a period of at least 72 consecutive hours to allow for           natural deactivation of the virus, followed by site personnel performing a comprehensive disinfection of all common surfaces.
iii. CDC protocols can be found here and here
 
III. Restaurants are encouraged to follow additional best practices:
 
a. Entryway, curbside, and home delivery.
b. Telephone and online ordering for contactless pickup and delivery.
 c. Cashless and receiptless transactions.
d. Customers enter and exit through different entries using one-way traffic, where possible.
 
 
Personal Care Services
Attachment G
Issued April 22, 2020 Effective April 24, 2020
State of Alaska COVID-19 Mandate 016 - Attachment G Personal Care Services
By:  Governor Mike Dunleavy
 Commissioner Adam Crum, Alaska Department of Health and Social Services 
 Dr. Anne Zink, Chief Medical Officer, State of Alaska
 
I. Applicability: This section applies to personal care services including, but not limited to, the following business types:
             i.             Hair salons;
 ii.           Day spas and esthetics locations;
iii.            Nail salons; 
iv.            Barber shops; 
v.             Tattoo shops; 
vi.            Body piercing locations; 
vii.           Tanning facilities; 
viii.          Rolfing; 
ix.            Reiki;
x.             Lactation consultants;
xi.            Acupressure.
x.             Personal Care Services can resume if they meet all of the following     requirements:
 
a. Compliance with Licensing and Board Direction: Nothing in this mandate or any attachment shall be construed to waive any existing statutory, regulatory, or licensing requirements applicable to providers or businesses operating under this attachment. Service providers should consult their licensing board for additional direction on standards for providing services.
b. Social Distancing:
i.             Reservations only. Walk-ins prohibited.
ii.            No person is allowed to stay in waiting areas. Waiting areas should not have any magazines, portfolios, or catalogues. No beverage service can be provided.
iii.           Only the customer receiving the service may enter the shop, except for a parent or guardian accompanying a minor or a guardian ad litem or someone with                    legal power of attorney accompanying an individual with disabilities. Drivers, friends, and relatives cannot enter the business.
            iv.           Limit of one customer per staff person performing personal care services.
v.            No more than ten people should be in the shop at a time, including staff and clients.
vi.          Customers must receive pre-visit telephonic consultation to screen for symptoms consistent with COVID-19, recent travel, and exposure to people with                          suspected or confirmed COVID-19. 
vii.          No more than 20 customers, or 25 percent maximum building occupancy as required by law (whichever is smaller) at any one time; viii. Social distancing of                   at least six feet between customer-employee pairs.
            viii.         Social distancing of at least six feet between customer-employee pairs.
ix.           Workstations must be greater than six feet apart to ensure minimum social distancing is maintained.
x.            Establish a COVID-19 Mitigation Plan addressing the practices and protocols to protect staff and the public.
xi.           Entryway signage notifying the public of the business’s COVID-19 Mitigation Plan and stating clearly that any person with symptoms consistent with COVID19 may not enter the premises.
c. Hygiene Protocols:
                          i.             Hand-washing or sanitizer shall be provided at customer entrance.
ii.            Service providers must wear surgical masks, at a minimum. Cloth face coverings do not provide sufficient protection given the close proximity of individuals.
iii.           Customers must wear cloth face coverings and wash or sanitize hands upon arrival. Face coverings worn by customers may be removed for a short time when                necessary to perform services, but must be worn at all other times, including when entering and exiting of the shop.
iv.           Employees must wash their hands frequently, including before and after each client, using an adequate supply of hot water with soap.
v.            An adequate supply of disinfectant, hand sanitizer, and paper towels must be   available. 
vi.           Owners/employees must clean and disinfect frequently touched surfaces periodically throughout the day at least every four hours. This includes tables,                            doorknobs, light switches, countertops, handles, desks, phones, keyboards, toilets, faucets, and sinks. 
vii.          Business must have a designated employee on-site responsible for monitoring and following all sanitation protocols. 
viii.         Workstations, chairs, tools, shampoo bowls, and anything within six feet of seat must be cleaned and disinfected after each patron. In addition, hourly touch-                   point sanitation must occur. 
ix.           Visibly dirty surfaces must be cleaned immediately. Use detergent or soap and water prior to disinfection. Then, use a disinfectant. Most common EPA
               registered household disinfectants will work.
x.            Aprons must be worn by licensed practitioners and changed between each patron. Aprons must be cleaned and disinfected before re-using. 
xi.           Customer capes are single use only or need to be cleaned and disinfected before re-using.
xii.          Any sanitation protocols required in state licensing statutes or regulations that are more stringent than those listed in this mandate must be followed.
 
d. Staffing/Operations: 
i.        The shop owner is responsible for supplying personal protective equipment and sanitation supplies to its employees or contractors, including masks and                    
Korin Miller
4 days ago
 
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has made the symptoms of COVID-19 crystal clear: fever, cough, and shortness of breath. But as more and more people develop the respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus, experts are seeing a wide range of symptoms in patients—and they tend to overlap with the common cold, flu, and even allergies.
a person lying on a bed: The signs of COVID-19 can go beyond a fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Here, doctors explain the mild symptoms of novel coronavirus you shouldn’t ignore.© Westend61 - Getty Images The signs of COVID-19 can go beyond a fever, cough, and shortness of breath. Here, doctors explain the mild symptoms of novel coronavirus you shouldn’t ignore.
 
The CDC maintains those big three are the symptoms of novel coronavirus, but the World Health Organization (WHO) has a more extensive list that includes 14 different symptoms detected in people with mild cases of COVID-19. That’s a big deal, since “most people infected with the COVID-19 virus have mild disease and recover,” per a February report of a joint World Health Organization-China mission. In fact, that report found that 80% of confirmed patients had mild to moderate disease.
 
So, which coronavirus symptoms should you be paying closer attention to—and what should you do if you think you may be infected? Here’s what doctors want you to know.
 
Back up: Why does the CDC only list three novel coronavirus symptoms?
 
“It’s because these are the most common symptoms in the U.S.,” says Richard Watkins, M.D., infectious disease physician and professor of internal medicine at Northeast Ohio Medical University.
  • Fever: This is by far the most common sign of COVID-19, and is defined by having a temperature of 100.4° F or higher.
  • Cough: Experts say patients typically develop a dry cough, meaning you’re coughing but nothing is coming up, like phlegm or mucus.
  • Shortness of breath: This symptom often presents in more advanced cases and can range in severity. Some people simply feel winded by otherwise normal activities, while others end up having trouble breathing on their own. “It feels like you’re not getting enough air,” says David Cutler, M.D., a family medicine physician at Providence Saint John’s Health Center in Santa Monica, Calif.
That said, several studies have shown a solid number of people infected with COVID-19 have no symptoms. “We are likely missing many cases here in the U.S.,” Dr. Watkins says.
 
What are the mild symptoms of novel coronavirus?
 
In the WHO report, the organization analyzes nearly 56,000 cases of COVID-19 in China and breaks down a wide range of “typical” symptoms, as well as how often people with the virus experienced them:
  • Fever (87.9%)
  • Dry cough (67.7%)
  • Fatigue (38.1%)
  • Sputum production (33.4%)
  • Shortness of breath (18.6%)
  • Sore throat (13.9%)
  • Headache (13.6%)
  • Muscle aches and pains (14.8%)
  • Chills (11.4%)
  • Nausea or vomiting (5.0%)
  • Nasal congestion (4.8%)
  • Diarrhea (3.7%)
  • Coughing up blood (0.9%)
  • Red eyes (0.8%)
A lost sense of smell wasn’t on the WHO’s list, but several organizations—including the British Rhinological Society, British Association of Otorhinolaryngology, and American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery (AAO-HNS), say it’s a possible symptom, too.
 
Below, what you need to know about the mild symptoms that didn’t make the CDC’s list:
 
1. Lost sense of smell
This “has been seen in patients ultimately testing positive for the coronavirus with no other symptoms,” the AAO-HNS said in a statement. “It could potentially be used as a screening tool to help identify otherwise asymptomatic patients, who could then be better instructed on self-isolation.” According to a joint statement from the British Rhinological Society and British Association of Otorhinolaryngology, two out of every three people with confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Germany had a lost sense of smell, and 30% of patients in South Korea who tested positive experienced the same thing.
 
“Viruses are a common cause of changes to the sense of smell or taste that can occur with an upper respiratory infection,” says Rachel Kaye, M.D., assistant professor of laryngology-voice, airway, and swallowing disorders at Rutgers University. “Viral infection can result in both inflammation and swelling of the nasal cavity lining, leading to nasal congestion, which in turn causes a change in smell. Furthermore, there is also some evidence that viral infection can lead to neurologic damage in the smell receptors.”
 
2. Fatigue
It’s not shocking that a viral infection would cause people to feel completely wiped out, says Susan Besser, M.D., a primary care physician at Mercy Medical Center in Baltimore. “Your body is working hard to fight the virus, and that requires a lot of energy,” she says. “It doesn’t leave much energy left over for you.”
 
3. Sputum production
Sputum production, a.k.a. excess mucus that you may cough up, isn’t super common with COVID-19, but it’s common enough that more than a third of patients have experienced it. Dr. Cutler points out that sputum production is common with plenty of other respiratory conditions, like the common cold and allergies, so you shouldn’t rush to assume you have coronavirus if you’re experiencing this.
 
4. Sore throat
Because COVID-19 is a respiratory virus, you may have postnasal drip (where excess mucus drips down the back of your nose and throat) and that can cause irritation in your throat, Dr. Besser says. Also, constantly coughing can be tough on your throat in general.
 
5. Aches, pains, and headaches
These are common symptoms with viruses, Dr. Cutler says. “When you get a viral infection, often you get a fever and that fever response can cause the body to feel achy all over,” he explains. “We see that with the flu and other infections as well.”
 
6. Diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting
There’s no clear reason to explain why this is happening in some people, Dr. Besser says, but she has some theories. “It’s possibly due to increased drainage from postnasal drip into the stomach—that can cause issues,” she says. It could also just be the way the virus itself behaves in some people, she says.
 
New research in the American Journal of Gastroenterology, which has not yet been peer-reviewed, found that a “unique sub-group” of COVID-19 patients develop digestive symptoms. “In some cases, the digestive symptoms, particularly diarrhea, can be the initial presentation of COVID-19, and may only later or never present with respiratory symptoms or fever,” the researchers wrote.
 
They believe these symptoms may occur because the virus enters your system through “a receptor found in both the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract where it is expressed at nearly 100-fold higher levels than in respiratory organs.”
 
What should you do if you think you have novel coronavirus symptoms?
If you’re experiencing multiple symptoms of COVID-19, get your doctor on the phone. You should not go to the hospital, because you could potentially spread the virus if you do have it or pick it up if you actually don’t. Once you discuss your symptoms, your doctor will be able to determine if you qualify for a COVID-19 test and go from there.
 
However, there is no specific cure for novel coronavirus and most people are being advised to treat mild symptoms with over-the-counter remedies while isolating at home for at least 14 days, Dr. Watkins says. “Many people have symptoms for two weeks—some longer and others a shorter duration,” he adds.
 
For a fever, aches, and pains, have acetaminophen (Tylenol) on hand and follow the label’s dosage instructions. Turn to cough medicine or tea with honey to relieve your cough or sore throat. Plenty of rest and fluids are also recommended. If you notice your symptoms getting worse, though, call your doctor again about next steps. And if the following occur, the CDC says it’s your cue to head to the hospital: 
  • Trouble breathing
  • Persistent pain or pressure in the chest
  • New confusion or inability to arouse
  • Bluish lips or face
  • Other severe or concerning symptoms (like a fever that won’t die down)
When can you leave your home after experiencing novel coronavirus symptoms?
 
The CDC has guidelines that depend on whether you have access to a COVID-19 test.
 
If you will not have a test, the CDC says you can leave home after these three things happen:
  • You don’t have a fever for at least 72 hours without the use of fever-reducing medication.
  • Your symptoms have improved.
  • At least seven days have passed since you first had symptoms.
If you will have a test, you can leave home after the following:
  • You no longer have a fever without the use of fever-reducing medication.
  • Your symptoms have improved.
  • You received two negative tests in a row, 24 hours apart.
When in doubt, call your doctor to be on the safe side.
 
From PREVENTION
 
 
 
Health Experts Revisit The Question
CARMEL WROTH
Even without symptoms, you might have the virus and be able to spread it when out in public, say researchers who now are reconsidering the use of surgical masks.
Elijah Nouvelage/Bloomberg via Getty Images
 
Updated March 31, 8:25 p.m. ET
 
A few months ago, it may have seemed silly to wear a face mask during a trip to the grocery store. And in fact, the mainline public health message in the U.S. from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been that most people don't need to wear masks.
 
But as cases of the coronavirus have skyrocketed, there's new thinking about the benefits that masks could offer in slowing the spread. The CDC says it is now reviewing its policy and may be considering a recommendation to encourage broader use.
 
At the moment, the CDC website says the only people who need to wear a face mask are those who are sick or are caring for someone who is sick and unable to wear a mask.
 
But in an interview with NPR on Monday, CDC Director Robert Redfield said that the agency is taking another look at the data around mask use by the general public.
 
"I can tell you that the data and this issue of whether it's going to contribute [to prevention] is being aggressively reviewed as we speak," Redfield told NPR.
 
And Tuesday, President Trump weighed in suggesting people may want to wear scarves. "I would say do it," he said, noting that masks are needed for health care works. "You can use scarves, you can use something else," he said.
 
On Tuesday Dr. Deborah Birx, who serves as the White House's coronavirus response coordinator, said the task force is still discussing whether to change to the recommendation on masks.
 
Other prominent public health experts have been raising this issue in recent days. Wearing a mask is "an additional layer of protection for those who have to go out," former FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb told NPR in an interview. It's a step you can take — on top of washing your hands and avoiding gatherings.
 
In a paper outlining a road map to reopen the country, Gottlieb argues that the public should be encouraged to wear masks during this current period of social distancing, for the common good.
 
"Face masks will be most effective at slowing the spread of SARS-CoV-2 if they are widely used, because they may help prevent people who are asymptomatically infected from transmitting the disease unknowingly," Gottlieb wrote. Gottlieb points to South Korea and Hong Kong — two places that were shown to manage their outbreaks successfully and where face masks are used widely.
 
A prominent public health leader in China also argues for widespread use of masks in public. The director general of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, George Gao, told Science that the U.S. and Europe are making a "big mistake" with people not wearing masks during this pandemic. Specifically, he said, mask use helps tamp down the risk presented by people who may be infected but aren't yet showing symptoms.
 
If those people wear masks, "it can prevent droplets that carry the virus from escaping and infecting others," Gao told Science.
 
The argument for broadening the use of face masks is based on what scientists have learned about asymptomatic spread during this pandemic.
 
It turns out that many people who are infected with the virus have no symptoms — or only mild symptoms.
 
What this means is that there's no good way to know who's infected. If you're trying to be responsible when you go out in public, you may not even know that you're sick and may be inadvertently shedding the virus every time you talk with someone, such as a grocery store clerk.
 
"If these asymptomatic people could wear face masks, then it could be helpful to reduce the transmission in the community," says Elaine Shuo Feng, an infectious disease epidemiology researcher at the Oxford Vaccine Group at the University of Oxford.
 
Given the reality of asymptomatic spread, masks may be a good socially responsible insurance policy, Gottlieb argues. "[Wearing masks] protects other people from getting sick from you," he says.
 
But there is still a big concern about mask shortages in the United States. A survey released Friday from the U.S. Conference of Mayors finds that about 92% of 213 cities did not have an adequate supply of face masks for first responders and medical personnel.
 
At this point, experts emphasize that the general public needs to leave the supply of N95 medical masks to health care workers who are at risk every day when they go to work.
 
And supplies are also tight for surgical masks, the masks used everywhere from dentists' offices to nail salons and that are even handcrafted.
 
"We need to be very mindful that the supply chain for masks is extremely limited right now," Gottlieb says. "So you really don't want to pull any kind of medical masks out of the system."
 
Given current shortages, it may be too soon to tell the general public to start wearing surgical masks right now. "We certainly don't have enough masks in health care," says William Schaffner, an infectious disease expert at Vanderbilt University. "I wouldn't want people to go out and buy them now, because we don't want to siphon them off from health care."
 
Where does that leave us? Some research has shown that cotton T-shirt material and tea towels might help block respiratory droplets emitting from sick people, even if the effect is minimal.
 
"Homemade masks, shawls, scarves and anything that you can conjure up at home might well be a good idea," says Schaffner. "It's not clear that it's going to give a lot of protection, but every little bit of protection would help."
 
But experts say homemade masks may not be effective if not constructed and handled properly.
 
That's why Gottlieb says the CDC should issue guidelines advising people on how to construct their own cotton masks. "Cotton masks constructed in a proper way should provide a reasonable degree of protection from people being able to transmit the virus," he told NPR.
 
There's no definitive evidence from published research that wearing masks in public will protect the person wearing the mask from contracting diseases. In fact, randomized controlled trials — considered the gold standard for testing the effectiveness of an intervention — are limited, and the results from those trials were inconclusive, says Feng.
 
But Feng points out that randomized clinical trials have not shown significant effects for hand hygiene either. "But for mechanistic reasons, we believe hygiene can be a good way to kill pathogens, and WHO still recommends hand hygiene," she says.
 
And those randomized studies were looking at how the face mask could protect the wearer, but what experts are arguing is that face masks may prevent infected but asymptomatic people from transmitting the virus to others. It's hard to come by data on this point. One meta-analysis reviewing mask use during the SARS epidemic found that wearing masks — in addition to other efforts to block transmission, including hand-washing — was beneficial. Another meta-analysis of mask use to prevent influenza transmission was not conclusive but showed masks possibly help.
 
The research may not be conclusive, but researchers we interviewed agreed that mask use is better than nothing. "There are some modest data that it will provide some modest protection," Schaffner says. "And we can use all the protection we can get."
 
Concern over presymptomatic spread in the community has also led some hospitals to change their policies and extend the use of masks to nonclinical employees and visitors. Last week, Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston took the unusual step of giving surgical or procedural face masks to all employees who go into the hospital to work, even if they don't provide care to patients, the hospital's Infection Control Unit associate chief, Erica Shenoy, told NPR.
 
"This runs very contrary to what we normally do in infection control," she says. "But we felt that with the unprecedented nature of the pandemic, this is the right decision at this time." She says if an employee were to get sick while at work, "the face masks would serve to contain the virus particles and reduce the risk of patients and others working at our facilities."
 
On March 29, the University of California, San Francisco, also started giving surgical masks to all staff, faculty, trainees and visitors before they enter any clinical care building within the UCSF system.
 
Feng cautions that if people do start wearing face masks regularly in public, it is important to wear them properly. She notes that the World Health Organization has a video on how to practice correct hygiene when putting on or taking off a mask.
 
Saskia Popescu, an infectious disease researcher and biodefense consultant, is skeptical that healthy members of the public need to start wearing masks regularly — she says people should follow current CDC guidelines. But she emphasizes that if you are going to wear a mask, "you have to wear it appropriately." That means, she says, "you have to discard it when it gets damp or moist. You want to stop touching the front of it. Don't reach under to scratch your nose or mouth."
 
Otherwise, she warns, wearing masks could give "a false sense of security."
 
The China Red Cross delegation to Italy was appalled that social isolation was so weak, because it was obvious that everyone was not required to use a face mask.  Doctors say that masks are needed for sick people to prevent droplet spread when talking, clearing a throat, or respiratory action. We now know that there are many non-symptomatic infected people spreading the virus, who have no knowledge that they are infected.  The only way to have almost 100% of droplet spread stopped is to have 100% of all people using masks when in public. That also gets rid of any 'you’re sick' stigma. Droplet spread from less than 6 feet is the most prevalent form of transmission, followed by droplet contamination of surfaces. These transmission methods both can be greatly reduced with community use of masks, including homemade cloth masks. Community use of sewn cloth masks also reserves medical grade masks for the health care system.
 
The news videos of each country that has 'controlled' the Coronavirus pandemic show 100% mask usage when people are outdoors or in public.  In a time of mask shortage, we are trying to give you a way to get a useable mask.  These are not normally as good as an N95 mask, and are NOT recommended for those who are actually known to have the coronavirus, but are FAR better than nothing.  This has been proven, and is recommended by the CDC.
 
In order to make it more likely that people can get a useable and useful mask, we are including some patterns for you on the < homerrotary.org > website.  Some are very easy to make, and most will work well for everyone. The biggest thing is to get a good seal, so that you are actually breathing THROUGH the cloth.  Using 1/8” elastic seems to be the most comfortable to use for holding the masks in place, but make them so that people will actually use them.  If useable elastic is not available, ribbons that will tie around your head will work.  Please remember, the masks are for preventing the spread of disease, not to stigmatize anyone.  If we are all wearing masks, we are all less likely to get a disease.
 
People can get many patterns to sew their own or for their community. Many use double layers of cloth, but they may be so thick they do not pass air well. If you, or your child, cannot breathe through the mask, find something easier to breathe through. A single layer of flannel passes air but absorbs or stops passage of droplets created when talking, coughing, or sneezing. Remember, CDC says washing with soap and water will kill the virus, so these are reusable for the non-medical community after soap and water washing. An individual may need two or three for a day, but all can be washed, dried, and be ready for reuse overnight. People should save the used masks for washing in a plastic bag, and to treat them as contaminated until washing.  Of course, wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds after handling droplet laden used masks. 100% cotton cloth (no synthetic or synthetic blends) works best.
 
 We have lots of people sitting at home across the area wanting to know how to help. This could be a great local Rotary project, similar to the prevention project of Polio Plus.
 
Paul
This is a homemade particle mask as made by Tina Seaton.  It is pretty simple, and works very well.  The "pipe cleaner" used as a stiffener is something that makes this mask work very well by allowing you to form the mask around the nose.  Apparently the large diameter pipe cleaners cut in half work out very well. Dimensions can be adjusted to better fit smaller or larger people. there are many other designs available on the internet.
 
Several studies have been done on the best cloth to use.  Tea towels or dish towels appear to provide the best filtration, with two layers providing up to 97% filtration, but being almost impossible to breathe through.  The flannel here works very well, and is normally fairly comfortable. Normally, new cloth is washed prior to making the masks. then washed again afterwards. Using soap and as hot water as is available works the best.  This decreases the likelihood of contamination, also.
 
Large Size7"x 11"
 
Fold Over and Sew End Seams
 
 
Half a Pipe Cleaner Sewn Into Upper Seam.  1/8" Elastic, 7" Long On Each End.
 
Fold Up and Sew Bottom, Catching Elasticat Corners.  Reinforce Stich on Elastic
 
Three Tucks On Each End (Folded the Same Way).  Sew on Each End.

A View of One End of the Mask Illustrating the Folds
 
And Here Is Paul Modeling the Mask.
This is some very important information, and very timely. Recently one of the subject fire extinguishers discharged itself, and spread a white powder into the owner's house.  The powder MUST be vacuumed up, as it can be quite corrosive, and definitely shortens the life of moving parts as it is also very abrasive.  The extinguishers can self-discharge or not discharge at all!  Please check. Please note that there are several different brand names included in this recall.
 
Kidde Recalls Fire Extinguishers with Plastic Handles Due to Failure to Discharge and Nozzle Detachment: One Death Reported
 
·  https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/styles/thumbnail/public/110%20and%20Excel%20FX%20Identification%20Guide.jpg?4UuTu3RhWgLocT6MZ9J57XE39R76Kr50&itok=l_sHwRUR
·  https://www.cpsc.gov/s3fs-public/styles/thumbnail/public/Pindicator%20ID%20Guide.jpg?YBUwMb.UZSgcriCoDi0cWeQu4orHym_X&itok=Ayu1icKv
Name of product:
Kidde fire extinguishers with plastic handles
Hazard:
The fire extinguishers can become clogged or require excessive force to discharge and can fail to activate during a fire emergency. In addition, the nozzle can detach with enough force to pose an impact hazard.
Remedy:
Replace
Recall date:
November 2, 2017
Recall number:
18-022
Consumer Contact:
Kidde toll-free at 855-271-0773 from 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. ET Monday through Friday, 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. ET Saturday and Sunday, or online at www.kidde.com and click on “Product Safety Recall” for more information.
Recall Details
In Conjunction With:
Description:
This recall involves two styles of Kidde fire extinguishers: plastic handle fire extinguishers and push-button Pindicator fire extinguishers.
Plastic handle fire extinguishers: The recall involves 134 models of Kidde fire extinguishers manufactured between January 1, 1973 and August 15, 2017, including models that were previously recalled in March 2009 and February 2015. The extinguishers were sold in red, white and silver, and are either ABC- or BC-rated. The model number is printed on the fire extinguisher label. For units produced in 2007 and beyond, the date of manufacture is a 10-digit date code printed on the side of the cylinder, near the bottom.  Digits five through nine represent the day and year of manufacture in DDDYY format. Date codes for recalled models manufactured from January 2, 2012 through August 15, 2017 are 00212 through 22717.  For units produced before 2007, a date code is not printed on the fire extinguisher.
 
Plastic-handle models produced between January 1, 1973 and October 25, 2015
2A40BC
Gillette TPS-1 1A10BC
Sams SM 340
6 RAP
Home 10BC
Sanford 1A10BC
6 TAP
Home 1A10BC
Sanford 2A40BC
Ademco 720 1A10BC
Home 2A40BC
Sanford TPS-1 1A10BC
Ademco 722 2A40BC
Home H-10 10BC
Sanford TPS-1 2A40BC
ADT 3A40BC
Home H-110 1A10BC
Sears 2RPS   5BC
All Purpose 2A40BC
Home H-240 2A-40BC
Sears 58033 10BC
Bicentenial RPS-2  10BC
Honeywell 1A10BC
Sears 58043 1A10BC
Bicentenial TPS-2  1A-10BC
Honeywell TPS-1 1A10BC
Sears 5805  2A40BC
Costco 340
J.L. 2A40BC
Sears 958034
FA 340HD
J.L. TPS-1 2A40BC
Sears 958044
FA240HD
Kadet 2RPS-1   5BC
Sears 958054
FC 340Z
Kidde 10BC
Sears 958075
FC Super
Kidde 1A10BC
Sears RPS-1 10BC
FC210R-C8S
Kidde 2A40BC
Sears TPS-1  1A10BC
Fire Away 10BC Spanish
Kidde 40BC
Sears TPS-1 2A40BC
Fire Away 1A10BC Spanish
Kidde RPS-1 10BC
Traveler 10BC
Fire Away 2A40BC Spanish
Kidde RPS-1 40BC
Traveler 1A10BC
Fireaway 10 (F-10)
Kidde TPS-1 1A10BC
Traveler 2A40BC
Fireaway 10BC
Kidde TPS-1 2A40BC
Traveler T-10 10BC
Fireaway 110 (F-110)
KX 2-1/2 TCZ
Traveler T-110 1A10BC
Fireaway 1A10BC
Mariner 10BC
Traveler T-240 2A40BC
Fireaway 240 (F-240)
Mariner 1A10BC
Volunteer 1A10BC
Fireaway 2A40BC
Mariner 2A40BC
Volunteer TPS-V 1A10BC
Force 9 2A40BC
Mariner M-10  10BC
XL 2.5 TCZ
FS 340Z
Mariner M-110 1A10BC
XL 2.5 TCZ-3
Fuller 420  1A10BC
Mariner M-240 2A40BC
XL 2.5 TCZ-4
Fuller Brush 420 1A10BC
Master Protection 2A40BC
XL 2.75 RZ
FX210
Montgomery Ward 10BC
XL 2.75 RZ-3
FX210R
Montgomery Ward 1A-10BC
XL 2-3/4 RZ
FX210W
Montgomery Ward 8627 1A10BC
XL 340HD
FX340GW
Montgomery Ward 8637  10BC
XL 4 TXZ
FX340GW-2
Quell 10BC
XL 5 PK
FX340H
Quell 1A10BC
XL 5 TCZ
FX340SC
Quell RPS-1 10BC
XL 5 TCZ-1
FX340SC-2
Quell TPS-1 1A10BC
XL5 MR
Gillette 1A10BC
Quell ZRPS  5BC
XL 6 RZ
 
Plastic-handle models with date codes between January 2, 2012 and August 15, 2017
AUTO FX5 II-1
FC5
M10G
FA10G
FS10
M10GM
FA10T
FS110
M110G
FA110G
FS5
M110GM
FA5-1
FX10K
M5G
FA5G
FX5 II
M5GM
FC10
H110G
RESSP
FC110
H5G
 
 
Push-button Pindicator fire extinguishers: The recall involves eight models of Kidde Pindicator fire extinguishers manufactured between August 11, 1995 and September 22, 2017. The no-gauge push-button extinguishers were sold in red and white, and with a red or black nozzle. These models were sold primarily for kitchen and personal watercraft applications.
 
Push Button Pindicator Models manufactured between  August 11, 1995 and September 22, 2017
KK2
M5PM
100D
AUTO 5FX
210D
AUTO 5FX-1
M5P
FF 210D-1
 
Remedy:
Consumers should immediately contact Kidde to request a free replacement fire extinguisher and for instructions on returning the recalled unit, as it may not work properly in a fire emergency.
 
Note: This recall includes fire extinguisher models that were previously recalled in March 2009 and February 2015. Kidde branded fire extinguishers included in these previously announced recalls should also be replaced. All affected model numbers are listed in the charts above.
Recall information for fire extinguishers used in RVs and motor vehicles can be found on NHTSA’s website.
Incidents/Injuries:
The firm is aware of a 2014 death involving a car fire following a crash. Emergency responders could not get the recalled Kidde fire extinguishers to work. There have been approximately 391 reports of failed or limited activation or nozzle detachment, including the fatality, approximately 16 injuries, including smoke inhalation and minor burns, and approximately 91 reports of property damage.
Sold At:
Menards, Montgomery Ward, Sears, The Home Depot, Walmart and other department, home and hardware stores nationwide, and online at Amazon.com, ShopKidde.com and other online retailers for between $12 and $50 and for about $200 for model XL 5MR. These fire extinguishers were also sold with commercial trucks, recreational vehicles, personal watercraft and boats.
Importer(s):
Walter Kidde Portable Equipment Company Inc., of Mebane, N.C.
Manufactured In:
United States and Mexico
Units:
About 37.8 million (in addition, 2.7 million in Canada and 6,730 in Mexico)
 
 
The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission is charged with protecting the public from unreasonable risks of injury or death associated with the use of thousands of types of consumer products under the agency’s jurisdiction. Deaths, injuries, and property damage from consumer product incidents cost the nation more than $1 trillion annually. CPSC is committed to protecting consumers and families from products that pose a fire, electrical, chemical or mechanical hazard. CPSC's work to help ensure the safety of consumer products - such as toys, cribs, power tools, cigarette lighters and household chemicals -– contributed to a decline in the rate of deaths and injuries associated with consumer products over the past 40 years.
Federal law bars any person from selling products subject to a publicly-announced voluntary recall by a manufacturer or a mandatory recall ordered by the Commission.
 
To report a dangerous product or a product-related injury go online to www.SaferProducts.gov or call CPSC's Hotline at 800-638-2772 or teletypewriter at 301-595-7054 for the hearing impaired. Consumers can obtain news release and recall information at www.cpsc.gov, on Twitter @USCPSC or by subscribing to CPSC's free e-mail newsletters.
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